Monday, November 9, 2020





A solitary chip PC or A CPU with all the peripherals like RAM, ROM, I/O Ports, Timers, ADCs etc… on a similar chip. 

For example Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, and PIC 16X etc.

The 8051 Microcontroller is one of the most well known broadly useful Microcontroller being used. They can be effortlessly modified utilizing the 8051 low level computing construct. 


The contrast between a Microprocessor and a Micro controller is the accessibility of the on-chip peripherals like Memory (both RAM and ROM), I/O Ports, Timers/Counters, Communication Interfaces (like Serial Port), and so forth 
The accompanying picture shows the essential segments of a Microcontroller. As all the parts (and a couple of different segments) are coordinated on a solitary chip (Integrated Circuit – IC), a Microcontroller can be considered as a Microcomputer (or a Computer on – chip).

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

It is the cerebrum of the Microcontroller that principally involves an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and a Control Unit (CU) and other significant segments. The CPU is the essential gadget in speaking with fringe gadgets like Memory, Input and Output. 

ALU or Arithmetic Logic Unit, as the name proposes, plays out the Arithmetical and Logical Operations. CU or Control Unit is answerable for the circumstance of the correspondence cycle between the CPU and its peripherals. 

Program Memory

The directions of the CPU are put away in the Program Memory. It is generally executed as Read Only Memory or ROM, where the Program composed into it will be held in any event, when the force is down or the framework is reset. 

Current Program Memory Modules are commonly comprised of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-just Memory), which is a sort of non – unpredictable memory. 

In this kind of memory, the information can be deleted and reinvented utilizing extraordinary programming signals. 
When the microcontroller is fueled on or physically reset, the processor executes a bunch of directions from a pre-characterized memory area (address) in the Program Memory. 

Data Memory

Data Memory in a Microcontroller is liable for putting away estimations of factors, impermanent information, middle outcomes and other information for legitimate activity of the program. 

Data Memory is regularly called as RAM (Random Access Memory), which is a sort of unstable memory. It is commonly coordinated as registers and incorporates both Special Function Registers (SFRs) and client open memory areas. 

Input and Output Ports

I/O Ports or Input/Output Ports give the microcontroller, an actual association with the rest of the world. Info Ports give a door to passing on the information from the rest of the world with the assistance of sensors. 

The information from the info ports is controlled (contingent upon the application) and will decide the information on the yield port. 

Yield Ports permit a microcontroller to control outer gadgets (like engines and LEDs). For the most part, all ports in microcontrollers have double usefulness for example they can go about as both info and yield port (not simultaneously however). 

Clock Generator (Oscillator)

A clock signal permits the tasks inside the microcontroller and different parts to be simultaneous. A Clock Generator is an essential piece of the microcontroller's engineering and the client needs to give an extra Timing Circuit as a Crystal.


The 8051 microcontroller applications include a large number of machines because it is used for incorporating inside a project or to assemble a machine using it.
Let’s see the major applications of 8051 Microcontroller:
  • Energy Management: In energy management system the measuring device is used for calculating the energy consumption in industrialized and domestic applications. These systems are manufactured by integrating the microcontrollers inside their architecture configuration.
  • Automobiles: Microcontroller 8051 is to be used for providing automobile solutions. They are largely be used in hybrid motor vehicles to control engine variations.
  • Touchscreens: The advanced degree of microcontroller integrate the touch sensing ability within their design. Transportable devices such as cell phones, media players and gaming devices are some example of a microcontroller integrated with touch screens.
  • Medical Devices: Microcontroller is used in various medical devices such as glucose and blood pressure measurement machine for monitoring and measuring the exact result in a real-time computational environment.

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